The Internet of Things (IOT)May 17, 2019
Cricket world cup 1844-1980sMay 17, 2019
A self-driving car, also known as a robot car, autonomous car, or driverless car, is a vehicle that is capable of sensing its environment and moving with little or no human input. Autonomous cars combine a variety of sensors to perceive their surroundings, such as radar, Lidar, sonar, GPS, audiometry and inertial measurement units. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage.
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of driving automation
0: Automated system issues
warnings and may momentarily intervene but has no sustained vehicle control.
1 (“hands on”): The
driver and the automated system share control of the vehicle. Examples are
systems where the driver controls steering and the automated system controls
engine power to maintain a set speed (Cruise Control) or engine and brake power
to maintain and vary speed (Adaptive Cruise Control or ACC); and Parking
Assistance, where steering is automated while speed is under manual control.
The driver must be ready to retake full control at any time. Lane Keeping
Assistance (LKA) Type II is a further example of level 1 self-driving.
2 (“hands off”): The
automated system takes full control of the vehicle (accelerating, braking, and
steering). The driver must monitor the driving and be prepared to intervene
immediately at any time if the automated system fails to respond properly. The
shorthand “hands off” is not meant to be taken literally. In fact,
contact between hand and wheel is often mandatory during SAE 2 driving, to
confirm that the driver is ready to intervene.
3 (“eyes off”): The
driver can safely turn their attention away from the driving tasks, e.g. the
driver can text or watch a movie. The vehicle will handle situations that call
for an immediate response, like emergency braking. The driver must still be
prepared to intervene within some limited time, specified by the manufacturer,
when called upon by the vehicle to do so.
4 (“mind off”): As
level 3, but no driver attention is ever required for safety, e.g. the driver
may safely go to sleep or leave the driver’s seat. Self-driving is supported
only in limited spatial areas (geofenced) or under special circumstances, like
traffic jams. Outside of these areas or circumstances, the vehicle must be able
to safely abort the trip, e.g. park the car, if the driver does not retake
5 (“steering wheel optional”):
No human intervention is required at all. An example would be a robotic taxi.